Saturday, 30 April 2016

Z is for zealous in New Zealand

Frederic Mainwaring (1844-1922), 13th of the 16 children of Rowland Mainwaring (1783-1862), was my fourth great uncle. His mother, Laura Maria Julia Walburga Mainwaring née Chevillard (1811-1891), was  Rowland Mainwaring's third wife.

Frederick was born on 5 October 1844 in Frankfurt, Germany. He was educated at Rugby school, Warwickshire entering the school in 1859. The headmaster at the time was Frederick Temple.

Frederic Mainwaring's father died in 1862. Frederic emigrated to New Zealand in 1864 with his brothers Eugene (1841-1911) and Randolph (1839-1902). For the first few years the three brothers were pastoralists on the Manipouri Station, south-west Otago, in the south of New Zealand. This was unprofitable. Randolph became a journalist. Eugene, who had trained as an engineer, joined the New Zealand Public Works Department. When Ashburton County Council was formed in 1878, Frederic joined as a clerk. (Ashburton is 50 miles south-west of Christchurch.)

Frederic was an excellent employee. He served the council for 44 years without a day's leave until early May 1922 when he was granted twelve months sick leave. He died only a fortnight later.

Ashburton County Clerk, New Zealand Press, 6 May 1922 page 9 retrieved from PapersPast

Obituary New Zealand Press 19 May 1922 page 10 retrieved from PapersPast

Ashburton Council was authorised by legislation (section 56 of Reserves and other Lands Disposal and Public Bodies Empowering Act 1922Public Act 1922 No 50 Date of assent 31 October 1922) to
pay to Adelaide Mainwaring, widow of the late Frederic Mainwaring, formerly Clerk of the said County Council, a sum not exceeding one hundred and fifty pounds by way of compassionate allowance.
Frederic had married Adelaide Sarah Blundell (1856-1945) in 1874. They had two daughters, one of whom died in infancy.

Friday, 29 April 2016

Y is for Young family photographs

In the early 1990s, when I started our family history research, we met Noel Tunks (1943-2008), a cousin by marriage, the 2nd great-nephew of the husband of the 2nd great-aunt of my husband. Noel was very generous in sharing Tunks family photographs. Some were of members of the Young family.

I am still puzzled by two of these photographs. I have slightly different conclusions now than I did more than 20 years ago but I am still not convinced I have the answers.

The notes I have on the back of the photo, made about the time it was given to me by Noel Tunks, read: photographer Charlie Farr Maryborough (no 15198 (?) handwritten on back). Jack Young inscribed on back. My own notes say "looks like George Wilkins with Ethel and George (son) & Jack & Cecil Young".

Cecil was born in July 1898. His brother John Percy, known as Jack, was born  in August 1896. From the inscription on the back of the original I am fairly confident that the two young children are Cecil and his brother Jack and, looking at the age of the two small children, the photograph was taken about 1899.

According to the Victorian genealogist Susie Zada, quoting Australians behind the Camera, the photographer Charlie Farr worked in Marybough from 1893-1906.  So my guess that the photograph was taken in 1899 matches the photographer's business dates.

Looking at this photo again recently I assumed that the adult must be of John Young (1856-1928), posed with his two sons and his two step children, Robert Whiteman (1883-1957) and Mary Ann Whiteman (1884-1945). John's wife Sarah Jane Young formerly Whiteman  née Way (1863-1898) died at the time of Cecil's birth. In 1899 Bob Whiteman would have been 16 and his sister Mary Ann 15.

However, this interpretation is complicated by another photograph from Noel Tunks.

Again the photo is noted as having been taken by Charlie Farr Maryborough (no 14556 handwritten on back). I wrote that this picture was of George Wilkins, Charlotte Young, Ethel (Grose) & son George died WA.

The two young people standing appear to be the same people in the first photograph. However, the girl's dress is different and she looks younger in the first photograph, so I don't think the photographs were taken on the same day. The numbering sequence suggests that this might be an earlier photograph but I think the two teenagers look older.

Cecil Young and his brother Jack lived at Homebush near Avoca with their aunt Charlotte Wilkins née Young (1861-1925) and her husband George Wilkins (1857-1944). Charlotte and George Wilkins had two surviving children, Ethel (1883-1955) and George (1884-1909).

I think the girl in the two photographs looks older than the teenage boy and so I think it is more likely that the two teenagers in both photographs are Ethel then about 16 and George Wilkins, who would have been about 15.

I don't think the two men are the same, but I don't know why John Young would be photographed with his niece and nephew George and Ethel Wilkins as well as his two small sons.

It would be nice if there were other photographs to compare with these. Perhaps some other Young or Wilkins family descendants have some.

An update - October 2016. Yesterday we visited a cousin of Greg's on the Way side of the family from Parkes. She had a magnificent family photograph album. The first photograph was among her family photos. To my mind this indicates the two teenagers are the Whiteman children and a photo of the four children was being sent back to their Way relatives in Parkes.

Although the teenagers look similar, with similar hairstyles I think they are in fact different - one is the Young and Whiteman family, the second family is the Wilkins family.

Related posts

Thursday, 28 April 2016

X is for Excellence in Hands-Across-the-Seamanship, another tale from his misspent youth...

X is for Excellence in Hands-Across-the-Seamanship, another tale from his misspent youth...
(Contribution from a guest blogger)

Words starting with 'x' are rare in English, but lots and lots of Chinese place-names start   with 'x' in the pinyin system of romanisation so if these are allowed finding an 'x' for a blog-post title is actually a doddle.

There's Xianggang (Hong Kong), Xi'an (an ancient capital), and Xining (a province) just for starters.

But choosing one of the many Chinese Xs would be taking candy off a baby. X in this post is for Excellence Achieved in the Capital of Chinese Inner Mongolia, Hūhéhàotè.

Early morning at a Mosque, Hohhot
Early morning at a Mosque, Hohhot, Inner Mongolia, China. Image from Wikimedia Commons.

I was there briefly in 1983. One evening, landed in a low boozery by a cascading series of ever-more hazy decisions, I attempted to show half-a-dozen large Mongol lads how Australians could drink beer.

The stuff arrived at the table in a large shared baby-bath. You had a pannikin each and you all dipped in, and kept dipping, while your drinking mates cheered you on. This was an entertaining and efficient way of taking beer on board, and by the time we'd reached the bottom of the bath I was feeling splendid, surging with affection for Mongolia and Mongolians, who were plainly a magnificent body of men and women, with a marvellous history and culture and sense of humour and recreational facilities and beer.

International honours stood, I thought, at Mongolia v. Australia one all.

This was premature. It emerged that the baby-bath was just one shout, which meant that at the end of the beer round we'd each drunk a bathful.

By that stage, even though we didn't understand a word of each other's language, the boozery had reached unprecedented levels of Mongolian-Australian amity. To celebrate, we started some serious drinking. This time it was maotai, varnish-remover liquor distilled from sorghum.

Henry Kissinger is supposed to have said that all the world's problems could be solved if people would drink enough maotai. After half a dozen bottles most of our problems had indeed been washed away. A few new ones had emerged though. Someone had replaced my legs with rubber replicas and the little man inside my head responsible for the video was having continuity problems.

In the international competition, a Lay-down Sally Robbins was urgently required. Making a close but rather random inspection of the Hūhéhàotè urban landscape, particularly its drainage facilities, I traced a tired and emotional path back to the hostel where I was staying. There I found that some fool had increased the slope of the staircase to the angle of Mount Everest. I defeated this by hauling myself hand over hand up the banisters, celebrating the tactical success in a hearty bass baritone.

The next day I managed to get to the Mongolian grasslands, though with somewhat impaired efficiency. There I undertook to teach my hosts a thing or two about yurts. This also ended badly, Bogged to Buggery in a Bus with a Bunch of Bimbos, a B post, I suppose.

Mongolia Ger
Two yurts (gers) in the mongolian steppe. Image from Wikimedia Commons.

Related post

Wednesday, 27 April 2016

W is for George Wilkins writing from Western Australia

Greg's grandfather Cecil Young (1898-1975) had a small collection of postcards that he had collected when young. He passed it on to Greg's father, Peter.

When I first started our family history research I looked at those postcards and tried to work out who was writing to whom and why the cards had been collected.  They contained important clues. I've spent many years working on the family tree they make a lot more sense now,  but they are still worth revisiting for new insights.

Two of the cards were sent from Western Australia, I think from Cecil's cousin George Wilkins (1884-1909). Cecil and his brother Jack lived at Homebush near Avoca, with George's parents, George Wilkins senior (1857-1944) and their aunt Charlotte Wilkins née Young (1861-1925). These two postcards were addressed to Charlotte Wilkins.


The cards show Fremantle Harbour and Kings Park, Perth. Both cards are postmarked Meekatharra, a town in the mid-west of Western Australia.

An article in the Avoca Free Press of 10 March 1909 mentioned a memorial service for George Wilkins who had died 30 January 1909 in Meekatharra.

Cemetery records show that George was buried at Nannine Cemetery.  Nannine is 35 kilometres south-west of Meekatharra, 735 kilometres north-north-east of Perth. It is now a ghost town but in the early 1900s it was a gold-mining centre.

When I was thinking about researching this post I decided to look up the Victorian probate index. Although George did not die in Victoria there was a chance his affairs had been administered there. George died intestate but he had a block of land and there is a file containing letters of administration.
  • George E Wilkins occupation School Teacher residence Maryborough date of death 30 Jan 1909 file number 115/855 VPRS 28/P3, unit 130 VPRS 7591/P2, unit 447
The file contains an affidavit by George's father concerning the search for the will. It mentions a William Baker of Meekatharra, who had been an intimate friend of George's. Baker stated there was no will and there was no will found in the effects forwarded to his parents by the police. Nurse Cameron of the Meekathatta hospital attended George in his last illness and stated he had made no will despite being urged to by his attendants. George Wilkins senior also stated that Nurse Cameron had said George had been asked
if he had any message to leave. He replied that he had told Willy Baker all that he had to say except what he would tell his mother. His mother did not see him as he died before news of his fatal illness arrived. For all of which reasons I am fully satisfied that deceased left no will. (VPRS 7591/P2, unit 447, pages 15-16)
The letters of administration dealt with 20 acres of land at Homebush Lower and associated fencing.

I don't know how long George Wilkins had been in Western Australia. The postmarks are not clear and I can't read the dates.

Related posts

Tuesday, 26 April 2016

V is for vivacious Vida on the vamp

Vida Goldstein (1869 - 1949) was my first cousin three times removed. In 1903, 113 years ago, she stood for the Senate. Vida was a feminist and suffragist and one of the first four women in the British Empire in the British Empire to be nominated and to stand for election to a national parliament. In 1902 she travelled to the United States of America to speak at the International Woman Suffrage Conference, was elected secretary, gave evidence in favour of woman suffrage to a committee of the United States Congress and attended the International Council of Women Conference.

The Brisbane Truth noted Miss Goldstein's candidature.

The Truth's use of the word "vamp", or rather the phrase "on the vamp", does not correspond to our usage of the word today, as a femme fatale or the dictionary definition of part of a shoe-upper or boot-upper. A 1901 news article in the Sydney Truth obviously is using another meaning again when it refers to the "official vamp given in the daily press". I do not quite understand the meaning of "on the vamp"  in the caption to the cartoon "Vivacious Vida Goldstein on the Vamp". Is it some reference to the Anti-Sweating League?

A Female Franchiser. (1903, August 23). Truth (Brisbane, Qld. : 1900 - 1954), , p. 5 (CITY EDITION). Retrieved from
Although Vida gathered more than 50,000 votes, her 1903 attempt to gain a seat in the Senate was unsuccessful.

Further reading

Related posts

Monday, 25 April 2016

U is for uplifted from Uranquinty

A guest blogger describes a bit of his misspent youth ...

Imagine you're sixteen and hitch-hiking. No one will pull up and it's cold and getting dark. You've got no money. You're stuck in a one-horse town miles from home.

What would you do?

Well, these days you'd get out your mobile and start bleating for help.

Half a century ago, I walked across the paddocks to the Uranquinty railway station and asked the stationmaster if there was any chance of a ticket home to Albury. No there wasn't, but I suppose I looked small and miserable. He said he'd pull up the next goods train coming through.

Thanks to the kind SM, I went from cold and stranded on the side of the road to toasty in front of a pot-belly stove in the guard's van, with a guaranteed ride home.

There was only one small catch. The guard said I could earn my keep by looking out ahead for the signal lights. I'm colour-blind, but I didn't let on. Blue wasn't a problem, and I guessed right about the reds and greens, or we were lucky.

Anyway, we made it to Albury.

Uranquinty platform
Uranquinty railway platform about 2009 from Wikimedia Commons

Welwyn Garden City 1 geograph-2272229-by-Ben-Brooksbank
A railway accident where the signals were ignored.
View southward, towards Hatfield and London; ex-Great Northern East Coast Main Line. on 7 January 1957 the 19.10 express from Aberdeen to King's Cross, hauled by A2/3 Pacific No. 60520 'Owen Tudor', had passed several signals at Danger - in fog and in spite of exploding detonators - and ran into the rear of the 06.10 Baldock - King's Cross local train, which was already on its way, at a closing speed of about 25 mph. Rear coaches of the Local were wrecked, killing one passenger and severely injuring 25 others. The Pacific overturned as seen, the driver being badly injured but the fireman was almost unharmed. The coaches of the express and their passengers were also relatively unharmed.

Saturday, 23 April 2016

T is for trial for theft

Court records from the Old Bailey give insights into criminals, crimes and the victims of crime. Nearly 200,000 trials from London's central criminal court dating from 1674 to 1913 have been digitised. Three quarters of the cases are for theft.

Herbert Joseph Champion de Crespigny (1805-1881) was my second cousin five times removed, the second youngest child of Sir William and Lady Sarah Champion de Crespigny; younger brother of Augustus and Heaton, about whom I wrote recently.

Herbert was a lawyer, educated at Cambridge. In 1822 he was admitted to the Middle Temple, one of the four inns of court entitled to call their members to the English Bar as barristers. He was called to the bar in 1832.

In 1838 Herbert was driving his gig, a light two-wheeled spring carriage pulled by one horse, in Weymouth Street, London. This street links High Street, Marylebone, and Harley Street and Portland Place.

Herbert's carriage overturned and Herbert broke his leg. He was carried into a nearby house. He alleged that during the incident one of his assistants stole a key and some money from him.

A gig, c 1815-1830 - a few years before Herbert's journey along Weymouth Street.
Oil painting of a Stanhope gig carrying two well-dressed gentlemen, drawn by a white horse. Gigs were used by people who often needed to make short quick journeys with minimum fatigue to the horse. From Wikimedia Commons.

2313. WILLIAM LYONS was indicted for stealing, on the 7th of September, 1 key, value 3d.; 3 shillings, 1 sixpence, and 1 four-penny piece; the goods and monies of Herbert Joseph Champion de Crespigny, from his person.
HERBERT JOSEPH CHAMPION DE CRESPIGNY . I live at Ewell, in Surrey. On the 7th of September, I was driving my gig in Weymouth-street—my gig was overturned and I broke my leg in two places—I was carried on a shutter to a house, and when in the bed-room I saw the prisoner there—he helped to take off my things—I had a key and about three or four shillings in my waistcoat pocket—I looked very hard at the prisoner—he seemed to look as if I should know him—he wanted to take my pin out of my shirt—I would not let him—I asked if he was a tailor living near there who had done some things for me—he said he was—but he is not—he was taken for something else, and then my pockets were searched and this money was missed—there were two sixpences and a few-penny piece that I had marked, and this key of my writing desk—I had marked one sixpence and one fourpence, the other sixpence I had not marked, but I can swear to it.
ROBERT KEBRUNT . (police-constable D 56.) The prisoner was given to me—I found on him a sovereign and several shillings, sixpences, and four pence—I found these that are identified, and the key—he was taken on another charge.
Prisoner. I had been out drinking, and assisted to take the gentleman to the house—I did not know what I had about me then, but I did the next day—I said I had been taking various small change—I am a glove-cleaner—I picked up the diamond pin belonging to the gentleman, and gave it him—I was very much intoxicated when I was taken. Witness. He was drunk.
GUILTY . Aged 25.— Confined Six Months. (from Old Bailey Proceedings Online (, version 7.2, 21 April 2016), October 1838, trial of WILLIAM LYONS (t18381022-2313).)

The coins, 3 shillings, 1 sixpence, and 1 four-penny piece [a groat], seem small in value. Using a measuring worth calculator, in 2014, the relative value of £0 3s 10d from 1838lies between £15.44 to £641.90. The "real price" of the value of the coins is £15.44, obtained by multiplying £0.19 by the percentage increase in an index of the average cost of things a household buys from 1838 to 2014.The economic power value of those coins in income or wealth is calculated as £641.90 ($AUD1187). The economic power value calculation is based on the value relative to the total economy.

The theft of a key and $1,000 would not result in imprisonment for six months in the present day.

Related posts

Friday, 22 April 2016

S is for Sebastapol school records

One day I was browsing the resources of the Ballarat Archives Centre and came across some microfiche prepared by the Ballarat and District Genealogical Society, the  Ballarat and District School Students Registers - Consolidated Index 1864-1963 (BDGS).

I checked for my husband's father. He was listed and I learned something that I hadn't known. He had moved schools and addresses while living in Ballarat as a child.

Ernest Young was born on 8 July 1920 in Melbourne to Elizabeth Young née Cross and Cecil Young. Ernest was always known as Peter. His parents separated and Peter and his mother lived with her parents, Frederick James Cross and Ann Jane née Plowright.

Peter Young aged about seven.

The Cross family lived at Homebush near Avoca for many years. In the early 1920s Frederick James Cross sold his property there and the family moved to Sebastopol near Ballarat. They lived on the corner of Grant and Victoria Streets. The house is still there.

Peter outside the Cross house on the corner of Grant and Victoria Streets, Sebastopol.
The house on the corner of Grant and Victoria Streets where Peter Young lived with his mother and grandparents. Photographed May 2014.

The Sebastopol Primary School records are held by the Sebastopol & District Historical Society, housed in the old Sebastopol school building. The Society is open on the first Sunday of each month from 2 to 4 in the afternoon.

The old building of the Sebastopol State School now houses the Sebastopol & District Historical Society. Photographed May 2014.

Ernest Young started school at Sebastopol on 3 June 1925, just over a month before his fifth birthday. His father, Cecil Young, was named as his parent. Cecil's occupation was given as labourer.

The school records show that Peter left Sebastopol to attend Urquart Street school in Ballarat in December 1929.

Peter's grandfather Frederick James Cross had died in May 1929 and the family moved house.

The Urquart Street School records indicate that he was living at 419 Ascot Street and that he left in December 1931 to go to Melbourne.

Peter's grandmother died in November 1930. It seems that another upheaval in his living arrangements followed.

Urquhart Street SS No 2013 - Vision and Realisation Vol 2. from Ballarat & District Genealogical Society Resources - Ballarat Schools

The former Urquart Street School photographed May 2014
The house at 419 Ascot Street Ballarat photographed May 2014

I don't know where Peter went to school in Melbourne. His mother found work as a housekeeper there.

Further Reading

Thursday, 21 April 2016

R is for relatives in Rathmines

While  researching my last post on the Cudmore family in Queensland, I came across an Australian philately blog with a post about a cover that was sent from Queensland via Melbourne to Milo Cudmore Esq, 112 Leinster Road, Rathmines, Dublin, Ireland. The cancellation stamp is  CAMBOOYA/ MY 2/ 1881/ QUEENSLAND .

The author of the blog post, Maurice, was uncertain of the connection between Milo Cudmore of Dublin, Ireland and the Australian Cudmore family.

Milo Clanchy Cudmore (1808-1900) was my fourth great uncle, the brother of Daniel Michael Paul Cudmore (1811-1891).  They were the sons of Patrick Cudmore (1778-1827) and his second wife Jane Sarah Cudmore née Russell (1792-1879). Milo and Daniel were born in County Limerick, Ireland.

Milo Clanchy Cudmore was evidently named after Milo Clanchy, the husband of his aunt Mary Clanchy née Cudmore. Milo Clanchy died 3 May 1817 and left an inheritance from which Milo Cudmore's father Patrick benefited, with some residue for Milo and Daniel.

Milo and Daniel's mother Jane was a member of the Religious Society of Friends, a Quaker. Evidently to further their education Milo and Daniel were placed in Quaker homes in England.. Between about 1822 and 1828 Milo was apprenticed to Levitt Edwards, a baker and flour dealer of High Street, Chelmsford, Essex. He boarded with the Edwards family.  Daniel was placed with Mary Levitt, a relative of the Edwards family, and her husband William Impey at Earles Colne, a village north-west of Chelmsford.The boys saw each other from time to time while they were in England.

In 1830 Milo and Daniel returned home to Limerick in Ireland.

In 1835 Daniel Cudmore married Mary Nihill (1811-1893) and emigrated with the Nihill family to Australia.

Milo married Rebecca Harrison in 1839.

In 1840 a newspaper notice lists Milo as the proprietor of a grocery shop in Sackville Street, Dublin.

Dublin Morning Register 12 December 1840 page 1 from
Image (and subsequent newspaper images) reproduced with kind permission of The British Newspaper Archive (

Milo and Rebecca Cudmore had at least five children, including a son named Milo (1840-1892) and a son named Henry Russell (1842-1919).

In 1875 Milo and his brother Henry were listed as applicants for land at Eton Vale near Toowoomba, Queensland. (OPENING OF THE HOMESTEAD AREAS. (1875, October 14). The Darling Downs Gazette and General Advertiser (Toowoomba, Qld. : 1858 - 1880), , p. 3. Retrieved from ) There is a Milo Cudmore listed in the unclaimed letters of 1865 for Port Denison, Queensland. It may be that the brothers were in Australia earlier than 1875.

The brothers were evidently successful in their 1875 land application. Milo Cudmore is listed on the 1875 electoral rolls as being at Emu Creek which is just north of Toowoomba.

In 1892 it was reported that Milo Cudmore of Woodlands, six miles beyond  Cambooya, fell from his horse and broke his leg. Cambooya is near Eton Vale, 20 km south-west of Toowoomba on the Darling Downs of Queensland.

GENERAL NEWS. (1892, February 6). Darling Downs Gazette (Qld. : 1881 - 1922), , p. 5. Retrieved from

Milo died at the Club Hotel, Toowoomba on 24 February 1892.

GENERAL NEWS. (1892, February 27). Darling Downs Gazette (Qld. : 1881 - 1922), , p. 2. Retrieved from

The Club Hotel Toowoomba. 442 Ruthven street (cnr Margaret street). Originally know as Commercial Hotel and later the Queens Arms Hotel. It is no longer standing. Image from Flickr.

Milo Cudmore's grave in Drayton and Toowoomba Cemetery Image taken by Roderick and shared on this blog using the terms at the Creative Commons Attribution-ShareAlike 4.0 International License

Newspaper passenger lists show Henry Russell Cudmore leaving Brisbane on 29 January 1892 on the Buninyong, which sailed for Sydney, Melbourne and Adelaide.

Henry returned from his trip to administer his brother's estate. He left Brisbane again in September.

It seems that the letter of 1881 was written either by Milo or Henry to their father in Dublin. It was possibly written by Milo and hence the sender's name is the same as the addressee.  Milo Junior seems to have regarded Dublin as his home address for the purpose of the mail.

Milo and Rebecca Cudmore. Photograph from page 45 of For the love of the land : the history of the Cudmore family
Manister Lodge, 112 Leinster Road, Rathmines, Dublin, Ireland. Home of Milo and Rebecca Cudmore. from page 44 of For the love of the land : the history of the Cudmore family

The house at 112 Leinster Road, Rathmines, South Dublin still stands. It is a heritage protected structure (#4712 of Dublin City register). The image from Google street view shows the building is the nineteenth century house.

I was surprised to read in the report of Milo's death that there was only one relative in Australia, a Mr J. Kingsbury. Milo Cudmore had a lot of Cudmore cousins but it would appear they were not in contact.

I have not heard of J. Kingsbury before. This is research for another day. It is possible that Kingsbury was John James Kingsbury, a future member of the Queensland Legislative Assembly. J J Kingsbury MLA was was the son of Andrew Kingsbury and Emily née Chadwick. In that case he was not a close cousin, perhaps the newspaper was mistaken about the relationship.

Further reading

Chapter 3 of Ritchie, Elsie B. (Elsie Barbara) For the love of the land : the history of the Cudmore family. E. Ritchie, [Ermington, N.S.W.], 2000.

Wednesday, 20 April 2016

Q is for questing in Queensland

My Cudmore forebears were pastoralists with stations in Queensland, New South Wales, and South Australia.

My third great grandfather Daniel Michael Paul Cudmore (1811-1891) arrived in Australia in 1835.

Daniel Michael Paul Cudmore about 1865. Image from the State Library of South Australia reference B30912

From his entry in the Australian Dictionary of Biography:
In 1847 he inherited property in Ireland but sold it to take up a pastoral lease of 80 sq. miles (207 km²) at Yongala, which carried 18,000 sheep. In the 1850s he also leased Pinda, Beautiful Valley and Paringa stations. In the 1860s, after a 1700-mile (2736 km) exploratory journey from Rockhampton, he acquired still larger leases in Queensland and New South Wales.

Detail of 1867 map of Queensland published in Pugh's Almanac showing Rockhampton in the south and Rockingham Bay in the north. The map indicates treks by explorers such as Leichardt. (click on image to enlarge)

There is mention of Cudmore's exploration in the Brisbane Courier of 10 December 1861:

Local Intelligence. (1861, December 10). The Courier (Brisbane, Qld. : 1861 - 1864), , p. 2. Retrieved from 
Burdekin River at Sellheim, ca. 1925. Image from the State Library of Queensland and retrieved from Wikimedia Commons.

Rockingham Bay was named by James Cook in 1770.  It is 150 km south of Cairns. To the immediate south is the town of Cardwell and Hinchinbrook Island.

Daniel Cudmore wrote a report of his journey in the South Australian Advertiser of 8 January 1862

My great great grandfather, James Francis Cudmore (1837-1912), the oldest son of Daniel, took over and extended his father's pastoral enterprises. From 1859 he managed  Paringa, 208 sq. miles (531 km²). In 1860 he leased Ned's Corner, further up the Murray. From these properties he overlanded sheep to Queensland and took up leases there. In 1870, in partnership with his wife's brother Kenneth Budge (1842-1878), he bought Gooyea station on the Bulloo River, Queensland . He expanded Ned's Corner in partnership with Robert Barr-Smith and A.H. Peglar. He then acquired Welford Downs on the Barcoo River and combined it with Milo, formerly Gooyea, making a run of 5100 sq. miles (13,209 km²). He took on additional partners Sir Thomas Elder and W. R. Swan, and with them established the Milo and Welford Downs Pastoral Co. .

In the 1880s James Francis Cudmore ran into financial difficulties. He moved from cattle to sheep on some properties with substantial costs in changing the yards, fences and equipment required. He was also badly affected by the rabbit plague which reduced his wool clip by 80%. James Francis Cudmore transferred his unencumbered Queensland leases, Tara, Dartmouth and Blackall, to his sons.

James Francis Cudmore had six sons. Five of his sons went onto the land. His other son Arthur Murray Cudmore, my great grandfather, became a doctor.

Some of my Cudmore cousins are farmers. A 1951 article in Queensland Country Life, however, when reporting the sale of a Queensland property by Robert Milo Cudmore (1889-1969), the youngest son of James Francis Cudmore, spoke of the Cudmore family's leaving the land.

Further reading

Tuesday, 19 April 2016

P is for Plymouth's peccancy protection payment provocation

At N is for nuptials in Norwich I wrote about Heaton Champion de Crespigny (1796-1858), my second cousin five times removed.

Heaton's mother, Lady Sarah Champion de Crespigny née Windsor, was the daughter of the 4th Earl of Plymouth, sister to the 5th Earl, and aunt to the 6th Earl. Heaton was thus a cousin to Other Windsor, 6th Earl of Plymouth (1789-1833).

Other Archer Windsor (1789–1833), 6th Earl of Plymouth. Portrait at Kelmarsh Hall. Image from

In early October 1828 the Bath Chronicle reported that Heaton de Crespigny had fled to Paris to avoid being called as a witness against his former friend in the court case initiated by Heaton's father, Sir William de Crespigny. I have previously written about the court case and the duel fought by Heaton.

Bath Chronicle and Weekly Gazette 2 October 1828 page 2 from
Image (and subsequent newspaper images) reproduced with kind permission of The British Newspaper Archive (

It seems he was still in Paris through November 1828.

Salisbury and Winchester Journal 1 December 1828 page 2 retrieved through

Though the court case was still underway, it seems that in early December Heaton returned from Paris. On 10 December 1828 Heaton was committed for trial in Melton Mowbray for attempting to defraud the Earl of Plymouth.

From the Morning Chronicle of 12 December 1828, page 3:

Newspapers across England reported on the bizarre case. It was suggested that Heaton was in a state of derangement when he composed the letter to his cousin.

Evening Mail 15 December 1828 page 4 from

London Courier and Evening Gazette 18 December 1828 page 3 from
The story of Heaton's arrest was revised later in December.

Hampshire Advertiser 20 December 1828 page 1 from
The next assizes were not due to be held until the following March. However, Heaton's friends and family managed to have him moved from Leicester to London.

London Courier and Evening Gazette 22 December 1828 page 3 from

Heaton was granted bail in London and then taken to a lunatic asylum by his friends.

Bury and Norwich Post 31 December 1828 page 4 from
The Earl of Plymouth agreed to drop the charges against him if Heaton left England.

Royal Cornwall Gazette 3 January 1829 page 2 from
At the Leicester Assizes in August the case was finally dropped.

Evening Mail 17 August 1829 page 2 from

During 1829 Heaton's name was not out of the news, for the case between his father and Mr Long Wellesley still continued.

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