Wednesday, 19 February 2014

George Young's land at Lamplough

In 1859 or 1860  my husband's great great grandfather, George Young, who had followed earlier Victorian gold rushes, moved to the new diggings at Lamplough, near Avoca. The Lamplough rush was one Victoria's last great scrambles for gold. It was the very last for George, who settled on a block of land, became a small farmer, and died there thirty years later.

George's wife Caroline née Clarke and their two young children, John, born in August 1856 at Dunolly, and Alice, born in January 1859 at White Hills near Maryborough, moved with him to Lamplough. (A third child, George, had been born at Beechworth in 1854 but died there while still an infant.)

In July 1861 Caroline gave birth to twin girls, Charlotte and Harriet. Although the rush was petering out and miners were leaving, George and Caroline, burdened with four young children, stayed on. George took up ten acres of land, began farming, and continued to dig for gold.

Caroline died in December 1879 at the age of forty-three, leaving eight children, the youngest two just three years and one year old. Altogether she and George had thirteen children.

On 6 September 1873, George bought ten acres at Lamplough.
Land Title from Crown Allotment 2 Section 1A Parish of Glenmona VOLUME 00687 FOLIO 357 retrieved from 5 December 2012
Extract showing George Young's two allotments from Parish Plan for Genmona County of Gladstone. Plan dated May 28 1929 and digitised by the Public Records of Victoria.
The Victorian 1869 Land Act, passed on 29 December 1869, was
designed to expand land ownership in Victoria. People could peg out a parcel of unsurveyed land and apply for a survey to be done. If the application was successful, the land could be held by licence for three years. At the end of this period, if conditions regarding improvement to the land had been met, the land could be purchased. As an alternative to immediate purchase, the balance of the cost of the land could be paid over a seven-year lease. ("Lucy: Glossary." Online Exhibitions: Lucy's Story: Lucy Bell. Public Records Office of Victoria, 26 Apr. 2006. Web. 12 Jan. 2014. <>)
George Young had taken advantage of this legislation. He bought his block shortly only three years and nine months since the legislation had been passed.

On this plan, prepared when George Young was acquiring his second block of ten acres, it can be seen that the first block was acquired under section 42 of the 1865 Land Act.

PROV, VA 538 Department of Crown Lands and Survey, VPRS 439/P0 Land Selection Files, by Land District, Section 49 Land Act 1869, Unit 203, 49/991 Glenmona
George first leased the block, then, in 1884, he made an application to purchase it.

On 7 August 1877 George Young wrote to the Lands Office about his lease payments.

PROV, VA 538 Department of Crown Lands and Survey, VPRS 439/P0 Land Selection Files, by Land District, Section 49 Land Act 1869, Unit 203, 49/991 Glenmona: letter concerning licence fee.
The error was made by the Lands Office. George's payment had not been posted correctly.
His application to purchase the block in 1884  included the following statement:

PROV, VA 538 Department of Crown Lands and Survey, VPRS 439/P0 Land Selection Files, by Land District, Section 49 Land Act 1869, Unit 203, 49/991 Glenmona: application to purchase 18.8.84.
I have been unable to find the file associated with the purchase of the first block of land. It is a pity as I learned much more about George and his life from the land files, building on the family history that I learned from the birth and death certificates of his children.

George Young died on 31 August 1890. Seven weeks before his death George transferred the land to his daughter Maria. She sold it a year later. There is no probate file for George Young. He had probably arranged his affairs before his death and didn't need to make a will.

Land Title from Crown Allotment 2 Section 1A Parish of Glenmona VOLUME 00687 FOLIO 357 retrieved from 5 December 2012 

Denis Strangman, a descendant of one of the Lamplough miners who settled there near George Young, has written a history of the rush. (Strangman, Denis. "The Gold Rush to Lamplough, near Avoca in Victoria, Australia, during 1859-1860." Familia (Ulster Historical Foundation) 2.3 (1987): 3-21. Avoca and District Historical Society, 10 Jan. 2000. Web. 12 Jan. 2014. <>.)

Sunday, 16 February 2014

Paringa Hall

Paringa Hall at Somerton was the home of my great great grandparents James Francis Cudmore (1837 - 1912) and his wife Margaret née Budge (1845 - 1912).

The house was built between 1880 and 1882.The architect was Edmund W. Wright who had designed the Adelaide Town Hall in 1863, the Adelaide Post Office in 1866, and the South Australian Parliament House in 1874. (Sullivan, Christine, 'Wright, Edmund William’, Architecture Museum, University of South Australia, 2008, Architects of South Australia: [])

The Hall was named after Paringa Station on the Murray River close to  Renmark which was acquired by James's father Daniel Cudmore in 1858 and transferred to James in 1859. That property was 260 km north-east of Adelaide and 4km of Renmark. The name is said to be an indigenous word for land or place at the river. ("Paringa Station, Murray River." Treasures of the State Library. Government of South Australia, n.d. Web. 16 Feb. 2014. <>)

James and Margaret died within four months of each other in 1912. The house was sold to the Marist Brothers in 1914 and was converted to a school.

I visited the school while on holiday last week in Adelaide and staff at the school made me very welcome. I was shown around the house which is very well cared for and much appreciated. They also gave me a booklet on the history of the house written in 1997 by their late archivist, Brother Columbanus Pratt, and the Friends of Paringa Hall.

Stately Homes of Adelaide. (1928, December 15). The Mail (Adelaide, SA : 1912 - 1954), p. 14. Retrieved February 16, 2014, from

James and Margaret are buried in St Jude's cemetery at Brighton.

DEATH OF MR. J. F. CUDMORE. (1912, August 17). The Mail (Adelaide, SA : 1912 - 1954), p. 3 Section: THIRD SECTION.. Retrieved February 16, 2014, from

Tuesday, 11 February 2014

Trove Tuesday: obituary for Beatrix de Crespigny

Obituary for my great grandmother, Beatrix Champion de Crespigny née Hughes (1884 - 1943), from The Advertiser of 12 November 1943 page 4.

Yesterday I visited her grave at Stirling cemetery near Aldgate in the Adelaide Hills. I was very appreciative of a photograph with the grave location that I received from Gaye of the Adelaide Hills Council.

Behind her grave are memorials to her daughter Margaret (1919 - 1989) and Margaret's husband Cornelis In't Veld (1908 - 1994).

Beatrix's gravestone is an unusual design. I would be very interested to hear of any similar designs.

Saturday, 8 February 2014

Sepia Saturday: Emil and Helene Manock at the piano

This week's Sepia Saturday prompt is a photograph of two people at a piano.

Here is a photograph of my great grandparents Helene née Peters (1889 - 1944) and her husband Emil Manock (1883 -1966).

Emil and Helene's first child, also Helene, was born in 1909. The presence or absence of a child does not help much - the couple may have chosen to be photographed without their children.  If the photograph was taken in 1909, Helene was twenty and Emil was twenty-six years old.

Photographs are often dated by looking at the hairstyle and clothes. Helene's hairstyle is a little less complicated than coiffures in photos from 1909 pictured in Lenore Frost's book on Dating Family Photos 1850 - 1920.  It is more similar to pictures dating from 1914.  However since Lenore's book is about Australian photographs it could be that Berlin fashions were a little ahead of Australia. The Photo Detective website based on British photographs, illustrates the Side Swirl Hairstyle as being a popular fashion for young women from about 1909 to 1914 and what is termed the Transitional hairstyle from about 1911. ("Edwardian - index." Photo Detective. Geoff Caulton, 22 June 2010. Web. 06 Feb. 2014. <>. )

The clothes look as though they date from the Edwardian era. The high collar of the dress, a slim and high standing collar, is typical of the era. From 1905 apparently sleeves changed and the "fullness at the wrist disappeared, the width at the top increased and there was a return to the leg-of-mutton, full puffed and double-puffed sleeves of the 1890s." We can't see much detail of the skirt. ("Fashion In The Edwardian Era: Part I ." The Ladies Treasury of Costume and Fashion. Ladies Treasury, 19 Jan. 2013. Web. 07 Feb. 2014. <>.)

The photograph appears to have been taken at Emil and Helene's flat, not in a studio.

Emil was an interior designer and antique dealer in Berlin.  When they first married Emil and Helene lived in Steglitz. Later, but before World War 2, his shop was in Budapester Straße and he lived in a flat upstairs, with the work rooms on the floors above.  This area including the shop and flat was bombed during the War.

My mother recalls her maternal grandparents living in Budapester Straße opposite the Zoo. This is an undated, but pre-war, image retrieved from "Budapester Straße Mit Zoo." ALT - BERLIN., 6 Nov. 2010. Web. 6 Feb. 2014. <>.

My mother tells me that there was a grand piano in the flat in Budapester Straße.  She was too young to remember it being played.  Her mother, my grandmother and Emil and Helene's daughter Charlotte, learned the piano for fourteen years but did not play once she stopped learning. Charlotte's husband, Hans, spoke in later years of the enormous effort required when they decided to relocate the piano from the second floor to the first floor of the building.

Reference: Frost, Lenore Dating family photos 1850-1920. Lenore Frost, Essendon, Vic, 1991.

Wednesday, 5 February 2014

Family stories

In the fifth week of Shauna Hicks's series of blog posts about genealogical records the topic is family stories.

Before we had computer databases, family history was largely passed down by stories.  For example, my mother-in-law had a very clear idea of who her forebears were for several generations and was able to give brief outlines of their lives for ancestors back to the early nineteenth century from the top of her head. I have been able to verify the family history with records, and what she set out for me from memory was remarkably accurate.

On my side of the family, several relations have written family history books thereby preserving many family stories.

My father wrote Champions of Normandy which covers the early history of the Champion de Crespigny family to the time they migrated to England at the end of the seventeenth century.  Among other documents, it is based on a number of manuscripts held by different family members, as well as the registration of the family with the College of Arms in 1697. (de Crespigny, Rafe Champions in Normandy: being some remarks on the early history of the Champion de Crespigny family. R. de Crespigny, Canberra, 1988.)

My third cousin twice removed, Stephen de Crespigny, has gathered an enormous amount of family history. He collected information, documents and stories, but also had drawn up a comprehensive family tree in the early 1990s.

One of the three sheets of the Champion de Crespigny family tree compiled by Stephen de Crespigny

Helen Hudson née  Hughes (1915 - 2005) my first cousin twice removed, was an enthusiastic family historian.  She compiled a book, Cherry Stones,  covering her forebears (which coincide with my father's father's mother's family). I have found it a useful resource and am very pleased she wrote it.  It was published in 1985 and is an amazing effort considering she too had no computer database or access to the material we now have through the internet.  Helen's father Reginald Hawkins Hughes (1886 - 1971), brother of my great grandmother, had collected papers and paraphernalia of his ancestors and kept it in what she called a "tin trunk" which Helen inherited.  The book has much original material such as transcriptions of early letters. (Hudson, Helen Lesley Cherry stones : adventures in genealogy of Taylor, Hutcheson, Hawkins of Scotland, Plaisted, Green, Hughes of England and Wales ... who immigrated to Australia between 1822 and 1850. H.L. Hudson, [Berwick] Vic, 1985.)

My great great great grandfather Philip Chauncy wrote  memoirs of his sister and his second wife.  These were republished in 1976. (Chauncy, Philip Lamothe Snell Memoirs of Mrs Poole and Mrs Chauncy. Lowden, Kilmore, Vic, 1976.) The State Library of Victoria also holds a manuscript of his journal of his trip to Australia and other family history and biographical notes he made.

My Great grand uncle James Gordon Cavenagh-Mainwaring (1865 - 1938) wrote a history of the Mainwaring family back to the entry of Whitmore estate in the Domesday Book of 1068. (Cavenagh-Mainwaring, James Gordon The Mainwarings of Whitmore and Biddulph in the County of Stafford. An account of the family, and its connections by marriage and descent; with special reference to the Manor of Whitmore. J.G. Cavenagh-Mainwaring, about 1935.) The estate of Whitmore where my cousins now live has never been sold since the entry in the Domesday book but always been transferred through inheritance, albeit sometimes through the female line.

More recently the wife of my father's cousin, Christine Cavenagh-Mainwaring, has produced an updated  history of Whitmore and the family. (Cavenagh-Mainwaring, Christine and Britton, Heather, (editor.) Whitmore Hall : from 1066 to Waltzing Matilda. Adelaide Peacock Publications, 2013. ) I was very pleased to be given a copy of the book by Guy and Christine when I saw them in Adelaide last month.

Christine provides an update on what happened to Gerald Mainwaring (1854 - ?) though she also has not been able to trace what happened to him eventually.  My blog entry deals with him being tried for murder but he was not hanged as the jury effectively cast a ballot to decide his fate. His sentence was commuted to penal servitude. Apparently he was released on licence on May 16, 1894. The family story is that Gerald made his way to Whitmore where his brother Percy (1857 - 1927), the Rector of Whitmore, would not let him into the house, gave him a five pound note and an overcoat and sent him away.  Perhaps Gerald changed his name and returned to Canada. There seems no record of him after that time.

There are lots of other family stories in Christine's book to follow up on and to research further.

In the 1990s James Kenneth Cudmore (1926 - 2013), my second cousin once removed, of Quirindi New South Wales, commissioned Elsie Ritchie to write the Cudmore family history. The work built on the family history efforts of many family members.  It was published in 2000.  It is a very large and comprehensive work and includes many many Cudmore family stories. (Ritchie, Elsie B. (Elsie Barbara) For the love of the land: the history of the Cudmore family. E. Ritchie, [Ermington, N.S.W.], 2000.)

A collection of family history books.

Emma Rothschild, a Professor of History at Harvard University, has studied the Johnstone family in a scholarly history of the eighteenth century in order to gain an insight into the development of the British Empire.  Barbara Johnstone (1723 - 1765) was my sixth great grandmother and it is she and her siblings who are the subject of this book. The source material included the oldest brother's letter book which was in an Edinburgh library. (Rothschild, Emma The inner life of empires : an eighteenth-century history. Princeton University Press, Princeton, N.J. ; Woodstock, 2011.  Book review:

Among other stories, I learned from the book that in 1759 Barbara separated from her husband Charles Kinnaird (1723 - 1767). He had succeeded to the baronetcy as 6th Lord Kinnaird in 1758. Barbara awarded £130 per year and £100 pounds for furniture. She did not have access to her children. Her husband stated she had committed no crime other than ill nature.
Barbara, Baroness Kinnaird by Allan Ramsay, 1748 portrait retrieved from . Barbara Johnstone was the daughter of Sir James Johnstone, 3rd Bt. and Barbara Murray. She married Charles Kinnaird, 6th Baron Kinnaird, son of George Kinnaird and Lady Helen Gordon. She died on 21 October 1765

It is a bit intimidating when so much family history has been written to attempt one's own study.  However, I have found plenty more family history to research while enjoying the stories published by others.

Saturday, 1 February 2014

52 Weeks of Genealogical Records in 2014 – Week 4 Memorial Cards

Four weeks ago, the archivist and historian Shauna Hicks ( started a series of blog posts about genealogical records. There's to be one post each week this year.  I am a bit late to the party, but now I'm joining in.

This week Shauna wrote about Memorial Cards (

I have only one Memorial Card, purchased from Lenore Frost's 'Photo Rescue!', a service intended to 're-unite orphaned photos [and cards] with their lost families'. (

n 1854 Margaret Smyth, who became Margaret Plowright, arrived in Melbourne from Southampton on the Persian. She was twenty years old from County Cavan. During the passage to Australia, she gave birth to a boy, and when she arrived she first stayed with a cousin called John Hente. At least the surname looks like 'Hente' on the Assisted Migrant record; but the writing is hard to read and I have no other information about him. I would be grateful for any suggestions.

Microfiche copy of Register of Assisted Immigrants from United Kingdom 1839 – 1871 - See more at:
Microfiche copy of Register of Assisted Immigrants from United Kingdom 1839 – 1871 - See more at:
From Public Record Office of Victoria VPRS 3502 Register of Assisted Migrants from the U.K. 1839 - 1871: 1854 list for the Persian Book 9 page 437

In November 1855 Margaret married John Plowright, a goldminer, at Magpie near Ballarat.  Their  marriage certificate describes her as a 22 year old dressmaker from County Cavan, whose parents were William Smyth, a farmer, and Mary Cox.

Margaret and John had seven children including one adopted child.  I can find no mention of the boy who was born on the Persian.

I have written previously on the marriage and children of Margaret and John.

On 5 March 1872 Margaret was admitted to the Maryborough Hospital.  According to the index of the hospital admission record, she was 37 years old, married, from Homebush, a Wesleyan, and she had arrived in the colony seventeen years previously on the Persian.

In 1897 at the age of 63 Margaret died at Homebush near Avoca. The death certificate has the cause of death as Brights Disease [kidney failure], dropsy [fluid retention] and exhaustion.  She was buried in Avoca cemetery.